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So the army which is forced back over the Marne is smaller than intended. It is also much more vulnerable than it should be. The German supply lines have not been able to keep up with the army's rapid move south. With the tide turning, the German forces hurry back to the river Aisne to regroup. The German Shepherd Dog is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany in As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds are working dogs developed originally for herding and guarding sheep. Because of their strength, intelligence and abilities in obedience training they are often employed in police and military roles around the world. Ununited Germany. In its long history, Germany has rarely been united. For most of the two millennia that Central Europe has been inhabited by German-speaking peoples, such as the Eastern Franks, the area now called Germany was divided into hundreds of states, many quite small, including duchies, principalities, free cities, and ecclesiastical states. German Translation of “able” | The official Collins English-German Dictionary online. Over , German translations of English words and phrases. Context sentences for "to be able to" in German. These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate. luhost.xyz is not responsible for their content. Read more here. English But we need to see whether its new government is able to fulfil its commitments. more_vert.G eneral George S. Patton Jr. His operations impressed us enormously, probably because he came closest to our own concept of the classical military commander. He was very bold and preferred large movements. He took big risks and won big successes. The Different Bloodlines of the German Shepherd British Broadcasting Corporation Home. The speed, flexibility and initiative of the German Wehrmacht took the Allies completely by surprise during the blitzkrieg at the start history line german able World War Two. Why was it that Britain and France were outfought at every turn? In one of history's great ironies, Hitler insisted that history line german able armistice be signed in the very railway car in which Germany had been compelled to admit defeat at the end of World War One. He was in a good position to dictate such terms. It had taken only a few short weeks for the Wehrmacht the German armyunder his control, to crush the army of the French Third Republic.
The Maginot Line named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete .. Thus the Germans were able to avoid a direct assault on the Maginot Line by .. The History of Castles: Fortifications Around the World. This is a timeline of German history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards its claims on historical German territory east of the Oder–Neisse line. The Kammhuber Line was the Allied name given to the German night air defense system Measure and counter measure continued until October , when German defenses were no longer able to respond. . Read · Edit · View history. With Germany able to build up its strength on the Western Front after the armistice with Russia, Allied troops struggled to hold off another. Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's line Bible, c. Though closely related to English, German remains far more conservative than English in One can speak, for example, of planning a table or tabling a plan, booking a place or.The French Army squandered the opportunity not bale the Maginot Line existed but because they failed to utilize their own defensive plan properly. A person who knows nothing about these forts could not even describe what one of these ouvrages actually looked like after reading this booklet. Qble controversy : A council held at the History line german able Palace concluded that popes alone could appoint, remove and transfer bishops. November 5, - Dp bergerak tidur malam re-elected as U. Chlodomer's wife Guntheuc married Chlothar. Wartburg Festival : A protest of liberal students took place at Wartburg. Aug 20, · Despite its strength and elaborate design, the line was unable to prevent an invasion by German troops who entered France via Belgium in May - Several Germans were among the settlers at Jamestown. - Peter Minuit, a German, came to New Amsterdam to serve as the governor of the Dutch colony, New Netherlands. Later he governed the Swedish colony in Delaware. Sep 25, · Built in late , the Hindenburg Line—named by the British for the German commander in chief, Paul von Hindenburg; it was known to the Germans as the Siegfried Line—was a heavily fortified zone.
British Broadcasting Corporation Home. But was invasion imminent or was this part of a strategy? When France fell with such rapid speed in June ten months after the outbreak of World War Two and six weeks after German invasion, Germany believed it had achieved an unprecedented triumph in the most extraordinary conditions. To a large degree, of course, it had. Traditional enemies and apparently strong opponents had fallen with ease and dramatic speed - not only France, but Poland, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Luxembourg had been over run and Britain's army had been outflanked and ejected in late May from Europe with the loss of most of its heavy weapons and equipment.
But to Germany's surprise, Britain, although apparently defeated and certainly painfully exposed and isolated, did not surrender. It did not even seek to come to terms with Germany. This was a puzzling state of affairs for the Germans who now had two options: to lay siege to Britain and to wear it down physically and psychologically through limited military action and through political and propaganda warfare, which would include the threat or bluff of invasion; or to actually invade.
Both these options demanded that preparations for invasion be launched, whether a real or bluff invasion only time would tell. It read, 'As England, in spite of the hopelessness of her military position, has so far shown herself unwilling to come to any compromise, I have decided to begin to prepare for, and if necessary to carry out, an invasion of England The Germans, surprised by the speed of their military success in Europe, had no detailed plans for an invasion of Britain with the man made responsible for the venture, General Franz Halder, now having to start from scratch.
But this absence of a plan did not prevent Hitler from announcing on 16 July that an invasion force would be ready to sail by 15 August. The operation was given the codeword Sealion. The political rather than the military nature of the invasion plan at this time is suggested by the extraordinary timing that Hitler imposed.
Planning an invasion and assembling a fleet and appropriate forces in a month was clearly a practical impossibility but timing was an essential part of the game of bluff that Hitler was playing. When the British realised what was coming their way their will to resist would crumble. From mid July the Luftwaffe stepped up the military pressure by attacking the channel ports and shipping to establish command of the Straits of Dover, while German heavy guns were installed around Calais to bombard the Dover area where the first shells started to fall during the second week of August.
By the end of July the Royal Navy had to pull all its larger warships out of the channel because of the threat from German aircraft. All seemed to be going to plan; perhaps this mounting military pressure and the prospect of invasion would break British spirits and make Operation Sealion unnecessary?
But by the end of July neither the threat of imminent invasion nor offers by Germany of 'honourable' peace had done the trick. It appeared that Germany would actually have to execute one of the most difficult military operations imaginable: an invasion, launched across at least 20 miles of water, culminating in a landing on a fortified and desperately defended coast line. It was immediately clear that this could not even be attempted until the Royal Navy - still one of the most formidable fighting forces in the world - had been either destroyed or diverted and after the Royal Air Force had been eliminated.
The first reaction of Hitler and the German high command, when it appeared that a real rather than a bluff invasion would have to be organised, was to change the schedule. On the last day of July Hitler held a meeting at the Berghof. He was told of the difficulty in obtaining barges suitable to carry invasion troops and about the problems of massing troops and equipment while the German navy argued for the invasion front to be reduced from the proposed miles from Lyme Regis in the west to Ramsgate in the east and for a postponement of the invasion until May Hitler rejected these requests that, if granted, would have undermined the invasion as a political threat, but the start date was postponed to September the 16th.
There is evidence that, during this meeting, Hitler decided that the invasion of England was effectively a bluff operation and that resources should be diverted to the east in preparation for the invasion of the Soviet Union. But, for the bluff to work, the build-up for invasion had to continue and Britain had to be kept under military pressure.
So, after the 31 July meeting it was decided that the Luftwaffe should tighten the screw by attempting to clear the channel of British warships and the skies over southeast England of British aircraft. Hermann Goering saw no problems. The attack was due to start immediately, but bad weather delayed the German air offensive against Britain until 12 August.
At the same time a new force had been organised to help defend the country. The Local Defence Volunteers LDV had been raised on 14 May and comprised men too old or too infirm to join the regular army or in protected trades and thus exempt from conscription. By the end of July one and a half million men had volunteered, a huge figure which reveals the seriousness with which ordinary people took the threat of invasion in the summer of Ironside's only option was to set up a static system of defence which, he hoped, could delay German invasion forces after landing Ironside acted quickly.
He had a large force at his disposal, but one that was poorly armed and equipped and generally poorly trained. In the circumstances, Ironside's only option was to set up a static system of defence which, he hoped, could delay German invasion forces after landing and so give Britain time to bring its small mobile reserves into play. If the Germans could be delayed on the beaches and then delayed as they pushed inland their timetable could be thrown off balance, they could lose impetus, direction and initiative and the British army might be able to counter attack effectively.
The key to Ironside's pragmatic plan was defence in depth. Southeast England was to offer a series of barriers or stop-lines formed by concrete pillboxes, gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles, trench systems, minefields and barbed wire entanglements and utilising natural and man-made features such as rivers, canals and railway embankments. They were to ensnare and delay the German forces. The Germans, of course, had their own script for the battle and their detailed air reconnaissance of Britain in early meant that the stop-lines would have held few surprises for the attackers.
But, whatever happened, Ironside was determined that this would be a battle of attrition. At the very least the Germans would be made to bleed before they achieved their objectives. This Instruction gave detail to Ironside's defence theory. There was to be a coastal 'crust' that was to consist of a thin screen of infantry deployed along the beaches.
This crust was to disrupt enemy landings long enough to allow the arrival of local reinforcements. Behind the coastal crust a network of stop-lines of various strengths and significance were constructed to slow down and contain or channel any German advance. This was the backbone of Ironside's coordinated defence plan. The line was planned to stretch from around Bristol in the west then east to Maidstone and running south around London passing just south of Guildford and Aldershot, then northeast to the Thames Estuary.
Then beyond that, through Cambridge and the fens and up the length of England, running inland parallel with the east coast but able to defend the major industrial centres of the midlands and the north, and up to central Scotland.
An auxiliary GHQ line was also to be established around Plymouth. The production of component parts for Spitfire aircraft. But the assault on the RAF started to go awry as Goering changed the emphasis of attack from radar stations and airfield to aircraft factories and more peripheral targets - thus giving RAF front line squadrons a much needed breathing space.
While what became known as the Battle of Britain started to reach its crescendo, the debate about Operation Sealion also continued to rage during August between the German navy and the army.
A meeting on 7 August revealed irreconcilable differences: 'I utterly reject the Navy's proposals [for landing on a narrow front],' exclaimed General Halder. Eventually a compromise was reached. On 13 August, Hitler agreed that the invasion front should to be narrowed, with the most westerly landing area being around Worthing.
The revised invasion plan was issued by the German High Command on 30 August. Hitler agreed that the invasion front should to be narrowed, with the most westerly landing area being around Worthing. The first assault wave was to secure the beachhead.
The second wave packed the real punch for it was made up of two Panzer Divisions - each composed of tanks, artillery, mobile troops and Panzer grenadier assault infantry - and one motorised division. The role of the panzers was to break out of the beachhead and then sweep west towards Portsmouth. The first wave here was to consist of two infantry divisions, while the second wave was to include two Panzer Divisions that were to break out of the beachhead and advance north - to destroy the main reserves of the British army and establish crossings over the River Medway.
These landings were to be supported by parachute troops, who were to drop on the Downs above Brighton, to assist in the securing of the beach head for the Brighton-Worthing assault group, and north west of Folkestone in Kent to seize the Royal Military Canal of Napoleonic war vintage. The Germans saw this canal, which had been built to stop French invaders storming across Romney Marsh on their way to London, as a significant anti-tank obstacle that could, if not bridged, stall the advance of their panzers.
The initial objective for both assault groups was to establish a front from the Thames Estuary to Portsmouth. Then the build-up would begin with additional supplies and troops being brought in. When the build-up was complete the panzers of the Brighton-Worthing assault group would attack towards Basingstoke, Newbury and Oxford to secure crossing points over the Thames and to encircle and isolate London and the southeast in a great pincer movement. The remaining German forces, located around the Medway and on the Thames estuary, would then thrust towards London - the ultimate target of the invasion force.
The remaining German forces, located around the Medway and on the Thames estuary, would then thrust towards London General von Runstedt was in command of Army Group A, which was to be the main tool of invasion.
As it happened, Von Runstedt had little faith in Halder's Sealion plan. He observed that Napoleon had failed to invade and the difficulties that confounded him did not appear to have been solved by the Sealion planners. Probably von Runstedt observed that one of the plan's main weaknesses was the small scale of the initial assault and the slow build-up. The first wave assault was to be carried out not by nine complete divisions but only their leading echelons numbering in each case around 6, men.
So only the equivalent of three divisions - around 60, men - would have been involved in the first wave assault. About tanks and very little artillery would have supported them. An added factor worrying von Runstedt would no doubt have been the amateur and ad-hoc nature of the sea transport.
The consequence would be troops landed at the wrong place or at the right place at the wrong time - or not landed at all if British sea and air power had not been completely destroyed. And these same problems of transport would apply to and slow down the build-up of reinforcements unless a number of major ports were captured quickly and intact - which was highly unlikely. There were, said Hitler, other ways of defeating Britain. As Hitler started to back away from invasion the battle for dominance of the skies over England and the English Channel - a battle that now, perhaps, had little strategic value - reached a new peak of fury.
On 3 September, with the RAF still far from destroyed, Field Marshal Keitel, head of the Armed Forces High Command, delayed Sealion until 21 September, and then again until 27 September, the last time the tides would be right before the end of the year. The day after this last postponement was announced, Goering launched his final major offensive to destroy RAF Fighter Command in daylight action.
It was a dismal failure, with the Luftwaffe losing twice as many aircraft as its potential victim. On 17 September - two days after Goering's defeat - Operation Sealion was postponed indefinitely.
The plan was never to be revived. Hitler's attention was drawn increasingly to the east, and in June he invaded the Soviet Union. In Britain's defences against sea-borne attack were scaled down. By that date it was finally certain that the German army - fatally mauled in Russia - was in no position to invade Britain. But Britain's coastal defences were not dismantled.
As the war ended, there were those who believed that the Soviet Union would be the next enemy and in anticipation of this NATO was formed in for the defence of western Europe and north America. But even if the Soviets were the new enemy it gradually became clear during the early s that a Soviet invasion - if it came - would not be launched against the coast of Britain, and from coastal defences around the British Isles were gradually decommissioned.
The Fortress Study Group. This is the only international society concerned with the study of all aspects of military architecture and fortifications and their armaments, especially works constructed to mount and resist artillery. Duxford Aviation Museum. Telephone:
Learn more about the history and significance of the German Empire in this article. not possess the usual parliamentary sanction of being able to cut off the Thus the “line of the Main” was weakened, though not removed. The lines are drawn in geometric patterns and distinct animal shapes. Kosok was followed by the German Maria Reiche, who became known as the Lady of the Lines. Reiche studied the lines Why history says Notre Dame will rise again . Cain and Abel's clash may reflect ancient Bronze Age rivalries. cavalry sent on to Lugo, and German hussars alone retained to cover the retreat of the German line brigades in pursuit — Able retreat of Soult — Wants of the. This is a timeline of German history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. in which the former recognized East Germany and renounced its claims on historical German territory east of the Oder–Neisse line. The Siegfried Line, known in German as the Westwall, was a German defensive line built At the same time as the reactivation of the Siegfried Line, small concrete "Tobruks" were built along the borders of the occupied area. Archaeological activity was not able to stop the destruction of these sections but furthered.
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May 8, - German summer offensive begins in the Crimea. May 26, - Rommel begins an offensive against the Gazala Line. May 27, - SS Leader. By the spring of Germany had been dominant in western Europe for four years. line of garrison troops, from where the fittest and most able had been combed to By this time the II SS Panzerkorps, consisting of 9th and 10th SS Panzer. Explore the British effort to defend her shores against Germany during direction and initiative and the British army might be able to counter attack effectively. Southeast England was to offer a series of barriers or stop-lines. The speed, flexibility and initiative of the German Wehrmacht took the Allies border with Germany, the Maginot Line, and to await a German attack. the German army in was the ability to move long distances quickly. The Maginot Line: The History of the Fortifications that Failed to Protect France online resources and a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents Andre Maginot As the power of Nazi Germany grew alarmingly during the. Blitzkrieg, which means “lightning war” in German, had its roots in the wars on building up its defensive border, known as the Maginot Line. Germany's blitzkrieg approach was characterized by extensive bombing early on to destroy the enemy's air capacity, railroads, communication lines and.Nov 18, · Although Germany in that sense is an ancient entity, the German nation in more or less its present form came into being only in the 19th century, when Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck brought together dozens of German-speaking kingdoms, principalities, free cities, bishoprics, and duchies to form the German Empire in After the defeat of Germany in World War II, the country was divided between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of luhost.xyzy was stripped of its war gains and lost territories in the east to Poland and the Soviet Union. At the end of the war, there were some eight million foreign displaced persons in Germany; mainly forced laborers and prisoners. Oct 21, · On October 24, , a combined German and Austro-Hungarian force scores one of the most crushing victories of World War I, decimating the Italian line . The Germans were able to extract thousands more troops—including a large portion of their staff officers, who were then able to reconstitute the German defensive lines with surprising speed. Mar 30, · In one of history's great ironies, Hitler insisted that the armistice be signed in the very railway car in which Germany had been compelled to admit . Nov 27, · This means that black people born in Germany, who grew up there and speak fluent German, are not German citizens unless they have at least one German parent. However, in , a new German naturalization law made it possible for black people and other foreigners to apply for citizenship after living in Germany for three to eight years.